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Some research (ex: Rowe, 2008) in developmental psychology demonstrates that children whose parents engage in child-directed speech have better vocabulary than their peers whose parents may not engage in child-directed speech as often. To test this theory, Mia recruited a sample of 24 families with 3-year-old children. After recording each child’s biological sex and ethnicity, as well as the family’s household income, Mia randomly assigned her participants to two group. One group (n = 12) was instructed to engage in child-directed speech (Child-directed speech = Yes) for a total of at least 4 hours a day for two weeks. The other group (n= 12) served as a control (Child-directed speech = No), where parents engaged in child-directed speech for less than 4 hours a day. At the end of this two-week period, Mia measured how many new words did the children learn. Below is a hypothetical dataset for this sample. Use this dataset to complete the following tasks:

  1. columns, for child’s biological sex. (4 points)
  1. Sketch an appropriate frequency distribution graph for ethnicity. (4 points)
  1. Sketch an appropriate graph showing the frequency distribution of the number of new words learned for children in the child-directed speech group (child-directed speech = Yes). In the same graph, sketch the frequency distribution of the number of new words learned for children in the control group (child-directed speech = No). Use two different colors or use a solid line for one graph and a dashed line for the other). (hint: see problems 20 and 21 in Chapter 2 and homework chapters 1 and 2) (8 points)
  1. Calculate the measures of central tendency (all 3) and variability (range and sd) for the number of new words learned by children whose parents engaged in child-directed speech. (10 points)
  1. Calculate the measures of central tendency (all 3) and variability (range and sd) for the number of new words learned by children whose parents did not engage in child-directed speech. (10 points)
  1. Using your answers for d, e, and f, write a short paragraph comparing the two groups. Does it appear that children’s vocabulary improves when parents engage in child-directed speech for at least 4 hours a day for two weeks? Make sure to report and discuss the distribution shape, the measures of central tendency and the measures of variability for these data in your answer. (8 points)

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